Ancient World History
As soon as people started to farm the land, they roamed and settled in villages, they population in certain areas began to grow, even sometimes they are grow rapidly. Villages grew into town, then developed into cities. The leaders of hunting bands became chiefs of their villages and towns, when the strongest chiefs became kings, ruling not just their own areas but also other settlements, these powerful rules created the world’s first empires.
C 200,000 years ago fully modern humans evolved in Africa. They then spread out to the rest of the world, other forms of human gradually died out.
C 9000 BC, wheat was cultivated in northern Mesopotamia, the area between the rivers Tigris and Euphrates, in West Asia, the availability of water and development of irrigation techniques led to the decline of hunter-gatherer societies and an increase in settled agricultural communities that reared domestic animals. Dogs were among the first animals to be domesticated.
C 7400-6700 BC, the people of Mexico began forming agricultural communities and grew vegetables such as pumpkins and gourds.
C 7000-5000 BC, small agricultural settlements developed in China, people cultivated rice and mode simple pots and baskets.
C 6000 BC, in Mehgarh, a primitive agricultural settlement that grew wheat developed, west of the Indus Valley, this area later became a part of the Harappan or Indus Valley civilization. At the same time, the aboriginal people of northern Australia made rock paintings of fish and crocodiles and other animal life.
C 3100 BC, Menes also known as Narmer, a king from Upper Egypt, unified Lower and Upper Egypt to form one kingdom. He made Memphis near modern day Cairo, his capital called Menes is considered to be the first Egyptian pharaoh. Meanwhile In Britain, the first stage of building Stonehenge began.
C 2334-2279 BC, Sargon, one of the earlist conquerors in world history, rulled Mesopotamia. He founded the Akkad dynasty and brought parts of Syria. Turkey and western Iran under his control. Sargan was first leader to organize a formal military force.
C 2200 BC, Egypt was weakened by crop failure and social upheavals, which led to the decline of the Old Kingdom, followed by a period of disorder, when Egypt split into several small kingdoms.
C 2000 BC. The Mesoamerican Olmec civilization developed and flourished in the lowland gulf coast of southern Mexico. Olmecs built cities and made advances in commerce and the arts.
C 1700 BC. The Minoan civilization began to flourish and the island of Crete. The Minoans were famous seafarers who traded across the Mediterranean Sea.
C 1600 BC. Egypt was united again under the rulers of Thebes, a city in Upper Egypt, the country became prosperous and grew to rule many neighbouring areas.
C 1500 BC. People sailing in large canoes migrated to the Micronesian and Polynesian islands for the first time formed farming settlements raising pigs, yams and other foodstuffs.
C 1300 BC. The Mycenean civilization in Greece began to decline. The Myceneans fought the war against Troy, a city in what is now Turkey, and lived in a series of small city states.
C 1279 BC. Rameses II or Rameses the Great was pharaoh of Egypt, He built the remarkable Temple of Abu Simbel in Aswan as well as other temples, forts and palaces across Egypt.
C 1000 BC, Iron become a popular metal in Europe and western Asia as people gained experience in heating melting and forging technieuq.
C 800 BC, Greece revived after a period of decline known as the Dark Ages.
C 605-562 BC, Nebuchadnezzar II reigned over Babylon. He attacked Judah and captured Jerusalem. Various building projects were undertaken in Babylon during his reign, including the constructuin of Hanging Gardens of Babylon, considered in ancient times to be one of the Seven Wonders of the World.
508 BC. The nobleman Cleisthenes reformed the government of Athens so that it had a democratic government.
499-449 BC, Greece and Persia were engaged in a series of battles, which are collectively referred to as the Greco-Persian Wars, the wars ended after the Greek city states managed to expel the Persian armies.
431-404 BC, The Peloponnesian War began when Athens brake a treaty with Sparta, all Greek cities took sides in the conflict that spread to include Sicily and other islands. The Peloponnesian War weakened the Greek cities and ruined their economy.
336 BC, Alexander the Great, King of Macedonia forced all the Greek states to accept him as their overlord. He then invaded the Persian Empire, defeated the Persians in the Battle of Gaugamela, this defeat brought about the fall of the Persian Empire.
330 BC, The Greek culture came to western Asia with Alexander’s conquest of these areas. The style of Greek culture spread by Alexander and his followers is known as Hellenistic.
218 BC, The two most powerful states in the western Mediterranean – Rome and Carthage began the Second Punic War. At the first the Carthaginian general Hannibal defeated the Romans, but the war ended with the humiliation of Carthage at the Battle of Zama in 202 BC.
149-146 BC. The Third PunicWar between Rome and Carthage resulted in the destruction of Carthage and led to Roman control over the western Mediterranean.
49 BC, The very successful Roman general Julius Caesar was appointed Dictator of Rome and began to reform the corrupt government system, however his enemies arranged his murder in 44 BC.
C 97 BC. The reign of Emperor Sujin marked the start of documented Japanese history.
31 BC. After a series of civil wars, Octavian, the nephew of Julius Caesar defeated the murderers of his uncle, instead of becoming dictator, Octavian assumed the title Augustus and used his wealth and influence to reform the government of Rome, He was later recognized as the first emperor of Rome. The Roman Empire included large parts of Europe and Asia, northern Africa and the Mediterranean islands.
C.AD 30, Jesus Christ was crucified on the hill Golgotha in Jerusalem, his teachings later formed the basis of the Christian religion.
C.AD 100, The Mesoamerican Olmec civilization began to decline.
AD 117-138, Roman emperor Hadrian rook control of the empire and reformed the government of the provinces.
AD 180-192, Roman emperor Commodus ruled during this period. His cruel reign marked the beginning of the Roman Empire’s downfall.
C.AD 200, The Bantu people descendents of the Neolithic Nok people from west Africa, migrated into central and southern Africa.
C.AD 224-651, The Iranian Sasanid dynasty ruled over Persia.
AD 306, As commander of the Roman Armies in Britain, Constantine the Great defeated his rivals and was made emperor by the Roman troops in Britain. He later converted to Christianity, the first Roman emperor to do so.
C.AD 372, Huns had migrated from Central Asia to Europe, drove the Ostrogoths and Visigoths from Ukraine, the Goths fled into Roman territory, becoming a constant source of trouble to the Romans.
AD 406, The Germanic tribes of Vandals, Alans and Sciri crossed the Rhine, this event marks the collapse of Roman power.
AD 410, The Visigoths led by Alaric invaded Italy and sacked (burned and looted) Rome.
C.AD 440, The British hired Germanic mercenaries to replace the Roman army, the mercenaries later revolted.
AD 455, Vandals sacked Rome again, in AD 476 the Western empire finally collapsed.